国家自然科学基金资助项目(31701629, 31972107)；辽宁省“兴辽英才计划”青年拔尖人才项目(XLYC1807133, XLYC1907040)
抗性淀粉(Resistant starch,RS) 作为一种新型膳食纤维,不能被人体胃和小肠消化吸收,但可进入结肠中被肠道菌群发酵利用,进而发挥其降血糖、降血脂、预防心血管疾病和结肠癌等多种生理功效。这些特性使RS用于预防血脂异常和胰岛素分泌相关的疾病,以及开发减肥食品、饮食疗法来治疗2型糖尿病和冠心病成为可能。然而,在大多数天然食品中RS的含量甚微,难以达到控制血糖平衡的功效。因此,如何制备RS并将其应用到食品中已成为国内外食品行业的研究热点。该文综述了五类RS及其制备方法和消化特性,阐述了RS在谷物蒸煮、烘烤、油炸和功能性食品中的应用现状,并提出了RS的未来研究方向,以期为RS的深入研究及富含RS食品的开发提供参考。
Resistant starch (RS), as a new type of dietary fiber, cannot be digested and absorbed by the human stomach and small intestine, but it can be fermented by the intestinal flora in colon and exert various physiological effects such as reducing blood sugar and fat, preventing cardiovascular disease and colon cancer. These characteristics make it possible for RS to prevent diseases related to dyslipidemia and insulin secretion, and to develop foods and dietary therapies to treat type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. However, the content of RS in most natural foods is very small, so it is difficult to achieve the effect of controlling blood sugar balance. Therefore, how to prepare RS and apply it to food has become a research hotspot in the food industry. The preparation methods and digestion characteristics of five types of RS were reviewed, and the application of RS in grain cooking, baking, frying and functional foods was introduced. In addition, the future research directions of RS were summarized to provide references for in-depth research of RS and development of RS-rich foods.