The development and application of functional starch are one of the hot research areas in food and medicine industries. Functional starch draws more and more attention from customs. It is an efficient method for the synthesis of functional starch by enzymatic catalysis. Due to its green environmental protection, safety and health characteristics, it has received extensive attention from scholars in many fields. In this paper, the structural regulation principle of artificial synthesis of amylose and highly branched starch using sucrose is summarized, and the research progress of amylosucrase and glycogen branching enzyme in the synthesis of functional starch is reviewed. The research trends and application prospects of starch in the field of functional food and medicine is illustrated, providing a reference for further development of functional starch.