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    Diet has a crucial impact on human health, and therefore, reasonable nutrition and balanced diet are the foundation for disease prevention and health maintenance. Currently, we are still faced with problems such as insufficient nutritional regulation, imbalanced dietary structure, and lack of health-care products. There is an upward trend in the incidence of diet-related chronic diseases. This article reviewed the current development status of functional foods and dietary health from three aspects: residents' concerns about nutrition and health, regulatory policies for functional foods, and the regulatory role of functional foods on nutrition and health. The existing problems of functional food industry and the future development trends of the nutrition and health industry in China were also summarized.
    In 2021, the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) issued a consensus statement defining postbiotics as a preparation of non-living microorganisms and/or their components promoting host health. Since then, the research on postbiotics has entered the upsurge. Compared with probiotics, the probiotic properties of postbiotics do not depend on strain activity, resulting in higher stability and safety, which make them more suitable for large-scale production and easier acceptance by consumers. This review summarizes postbiotics preparation technologies, mainly including thermal processing methods (pasteurization, sterilization, and ohmic heating) and non-thermal processing methods (pulse electric field, ultrasound, and ionizing radiation), and focuses on the probiotic effects of postbiotics in maintaining intestinal health, preventing obesity, preserving skin health, treating constipation, anti-diabetes, and improving oral health. This study aims to provide a reference for the future industrial production of postbiotics and clarify the mechanism of their probiotic effects.
    Disorder of glucose and lipid metabolism is an important factor contributing to the prevalence of common endogenous diseases, and the incidence of related diseases is increasing annually, severely impacting the quality of life of individuals. Probiotics, widely applied in daily foods as microorganisms beneficial to human health, can reduce blood glucose, regulate blood lipids, and improve the level of oxidative stress and inflammation by adjusting intestinal microbes. The author reviews the specific efficacy and relevant mechanisms of probiotics in three glucose-lipid metabolism disorder-related diseases, i.e., hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and hypertension. As a non-drug therapy for reducing blood sugar and lipids, probiotic provides a new prospect for the intervention and treatment of diseases related to glucose and lipid metabolism disorders.
    Breast milk-derived probiotics possess development and utilization advantage due to their safety and adaptability to human environment. The isolation, screening, and development of lactic acid bacteria in breast milk have become research hotspots in the dairy and lactic acid bacteria industry. Domestic and foreign scholars have carried out a lot of studies on the isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria in breast milk, as well as the screening and functional evaluation of probiotics. Delving into the probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria in breast milk and exploring their potential in industrial applications will propel the high-quality development of China's lactic acid bacteria industry. This review summarizes the advances in research on the diversity of lactic acid bacteria in breast milk and the screening, development, and utilization of probiotics, aiming to provide insights into understanding the diversity of lactic acid bacteria in breast milk and the research on probiotics derived from breast milk.
    Viable strain formulation is widely used in various fields including food, cosmetics, agriculture, environmental governance, and healthcare, due to their unique bioactivity, stability, and convenience. The author reviews the physiological structure of bacteria and the influencing factors leading to the inactivation of viable strain formulations during production, processing, and storage. It enumerates the mechanisms of proteins, sugars, lipids, and other components as protective matrices in viable strain formulation. Additionally, the different requirements of protectants for strains of different genera and physiological states were summarized, aiming to provide research insights for the development and selection of protectants related to viable strain formulation.
    Gut microbiota plays a crucial role in host health and is closely related to bone metabolism disorders during aging. The author aimed to investigate the effects of Bama Ampelopsis Grossedentata (AG), known for its longevity properties, on bone metabolism in aging mice, to assess the potential of AG polyphenols to improve gut microbiota composition in aging mice. The results showed that polyphenols could up-regulate the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and total antioxidant power, while down-regulate the content of malondialdehyde in the liver of mice. Simultaneously, AG polyphenols could promote bone formation and reduce bone resorption by improving the bone metabolism in aging mice, up-regulating the expression of Osterix gene, and reducing the expression of Acp5. Furthermore, AG polyphenols could modulate the gut microbiota composition in aging mice and promote the production of acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid in feces. In conclusion, AG polyphenols have potential as a future prebiotic to mitigate age-related bone loss and regulate gut microbiota, thereby achieving the goal of delaying aging.
    Extracellular vesicles are one of the important functional components in breast milk, and previous studies in the author's lab have found that breast milk extracellular vesicles (BM-EVs) could significantly promote the growth of Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12(B. lactis BB-12). However, the specific mechanism is unclear. In this study, BM-EVs were extracted from human milk using the combination of ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration methods, and were characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Western-blot analysis. Transcriptome data analysis was used to explore and identify the key genes of BM-EVs promoting the growth of B. lactis BB-12. The results showed that after BM-EVs intervention, the expression levels of ABC oligopeptide transport system-related genes pstC, pstA, metI in B. lactis BB-12 were significantly increased, as well as starch and sucrose metabolism-related genes BIF_02090, pentose phosphate pathway-related genes prsA and BIF_01321, D-amino acid metabolism-related genes murD and BIF_02122, and Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism- related gene pccA. In summary, BM-EVs may serve as a new type of prebiotic to promote the growth of Bifidobacterium in the intestine of infants,providing a theoretical basis for the development and application in next generation infant formula milk powder.
    Intrahepatic cholestasis is a pathological condition caused by abnormal bile secretion and excretion, which has a adverse impact on human health. A typical model of intrahepatic cholestasis induced by α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) was constructed to investigate the alleviating effect of Bifidobacterium longum CCFM1077 on intrahepatic cholestasis in mice. The results showed that B. longum CCFM1077 could ameliorate liver histological damage induced by ANIT, reducing the levels of major liver function-related enzymes in serum such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), as well as the levels of bile acids (BAs). Furthermore, B. longum CCFM1077 could significantly upregulate the expression of fxr gene by activating the enterohepatic axis FXR-FGF-15 signaling, thereby inhibiting the expression of cyp7a1, a gene involved in the synthesis of BAs. This strain significantly increased the abundance of gut commensals, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, with high bile salt hydrolase activity, decreased the levels of bound BAs (T-β-MCA, TCDCA, and TUDCA) in the liver of mice, and increased the levels of free BAs (CDCA, CA, DCA, and UDCA), thus promoting BAs excretion. B. longum CCFM1077 also reduced the relative abundance of Escherichia_Shigella and upregulated the relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae_UCG_014 in the intestine of mice. These results indicate that intervention with B. longum CCFM1077 can inhibit the anabolism of BAs to alleviate intrahepatic cholestasis, which may be related to the regulation of the strain on the gut microbiota structure of mice.
    In this study, 8 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented foods were used to screen the strains producing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and further evaluation of in vitro probiotic properties were conducted. The results showed that Pediococcus acidilactici ZFM801, Leuconostoc mesenteroides ZFM803, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ZFM804, Lactiplanti-bacillus plantarum ZFM805, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ZFM806, and Weissella cibaria ZFM810, had the ability to produce CLA, among which Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ZFM804 exhibited the highest CLA production capacity (mass concentration up to 21.7 mg/L) and consisted of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA isomers. The results of prebiotic properties revealed that Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ZFM804 exhibited a high co-coagulation rate of 25% against three pathogenic bacteria. The tolerability study showed that Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ZFM804 could tolerate 4% mass fraction of NaCl and 0.1% mass fraction of bile salt, and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ZFM804 also showed high tolerance under a simulate gastrointestinal fluid environment, with a survival rate over 60% at pH 4.5. Moreover, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ZFM804 demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus. In summary, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ZFM804 possesses the potential for high CLA production and exhibits excellent prebiotic properties.
    Lead is a common environmental and industrial toxin, which can cause persistent damage to the human nervous system, liver, and kidney. Finding effective mitigation strategies is one of the urgent issues to address. To evaluate the dose-effect of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CCFM8661 on liver and kidney injury induced by heavy metal lead in mice, the changes of tissue physiological and biochemical indexes, microbial structure, and fecal metabolites in mice treated with different doses of L. plantarum CCFM8661 were investigated. The results showed that the heavy metal lead could significantly damage the liver, kidney, and other tissues of mice, mainly manifested as the significant reduction in enzyme activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH), and the disturbance of gut microbiota and its metabolites composition. Oral administration of L. plantarum CCFM8661 significantly alleviated these changes induced by lead in mice, not only up-regulating the enzyme activities of CAT and GSH, but also alleviating the pathological indicators of liver and kidney, and significantly up-regulating the relative abundance of intestinal Lactobacillus and the content of isobutyric acid and other products. These results suggest that L. plantarum may play a role in alleviating lead poisoning by regulating gut microbiota and its metabolites. Notably, L. plantarum CCFM8661 showed a significant dose effect on the mitigation of lead injury, making it essential to determine the appropriate intake dose for the future application and promotion of L. plantarum CCFM8661.
    Using Lactobacillus paracasei SR10-1, Lactobacillus casei H1, and Lactobacillus fermentum GZSC-1 to ferment Rosa roxburghii Tratt juice as the research object, the quality changes of Rosa roxburghii Tratt juice before and after fermentation were compared. Gas chromatography-ion mobility spectroscopy (GC-IMS) and electronic nose (E-nose) technology were used to analyze the composition and differences of volatile flavor compounds in Rosa roxburghii Tratt juice fermented by different lactic acid bacteria. The results showed that the loss rate of VC and SOD in SR10-1 fermented Rosa roxburghii Tratt juice was the lowest (P <0.05), and the tannin degradation rate in H1 fermented Rosa roxburghii Tratt juice was the highest, reaching (41.37±1.08)%. The electronic nose analysis showed that the aroma profiles of Rosa roxburghii Tratt juice fermented by three lactic acid bacteria were similar, however, the aroma contribution of SR10-1 fermented Rosa roxburghii Tratt juice was the highest. A total of 54 volatile components were isolated from three groups of lactic acid bacteria fermented samples, diluted 4-fold Rosa roxburghii Tratt juice, and original sample of Rosa roxburghii Tratt juice by GC-IMS, and 44 compounds were identified, mainly including esters, aldehydes, alcohols, and acids. The volatile flavor substances shared by the three different lactic acid bacteria fermented samples included leaf alcohol, ethanol, propyl acetate, 3-pentanone, ethyl acetate, acetone, and so on. Dimethyl sulfide, acetone, and ethyl butyrate were the characteristic flavor compounds of SR10-1, GZSC-1, and H1 fermented samples, respectively. The main flavor components of H1 and GZSC-1 fermented samples were similar, which was consistent with the electronic nose results. These results indicated that the fermentation of Rosa roxburghii Tratt juice by lactic acid bacteria retained the main nutrients of Rosa roxburghii Tratt juice, generated new metabolic substances, enhanced the fruit flavor of Rosa roxburghii Tratt juice, and positively affected the flavor improvement of Rosa roxburghii Tratt juice.
    The study investigated the effects of a compound lactic acid bacteria powder containing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis XLTG11, Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8661, 文字Lactobacillus paracasei Glory LP16, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Glory LG12 on the intestinal microbiota of mice. After adaptive feeding for 7 d, 48 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into negative control, low-, middle-, and high-dose of compound lactic acid bacteria groups. The negative control group received an equal volume of physiological saline via gavage, while the test groups received 5×106, 5×107, and 5×108 CFU of the compound lactic acid bacteria powder, respectively. After 14 d of gavage, the body weight, intestinal microbiota, histopathology, intestinal barrier, intestinal permeability, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration of mice were determined. The results showed that compared with the control group, the feeding of compound lactic acid bacteria significantly increased the body weight of mice and the number of beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the feces, while significantly decreased the number of Clostridium perfringens. The concentration of short-chain fatty acids increased significantly, accompanied by a significant decrease in LPS and D-lactose. Overall, the compound lactic acid bacteria powder demonstrated the significant improvements in regulating the intestinal microbiota of mice.
    To determine the optimal snybiotics of Lactiplantibacillus rhamnosus(LGG) and prebiotics, the LGG-galactooligosaccharide combination is significantly superior to other combinations through growth and pH changes. The maximum biomass OD600 of LGG and HN001 were 1.253 and 1.552, respectively, and the maximum specific growth rates were 0.316 and 0.290 h-1 when galacto- oligosaccharide was used as the sole carbon source. Similarly, the lactic acid yield also showed a significant preference for this combination over others, with yields of 3.654 and 10.914 g/L, respectively. Meanwhile, in order to confirm that the combination can successfully pass through the gastrointestinal tract and exhibit probiotic functions, the tolerance of LGG and HN001 under different pH and bile salt mass concentration was determined respectively when galacto-oligosaccharide was used as the sole carbon source. The results revealed a significant difference in the maximum biomass under 1 g/L bile salt and pH 4.0 conditions compared to other synbiotics, with OD600 values of 0.712, 0.694 (1 g/L bile salt), 0.639, and 0.728 (pH 4.0), respectively. This study provides theoretical basis and experimental evidence for the subsequent development of related probiotic-prebiotic products.
    To investigate the effect of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus Glory LG12 on the intestinal flora of mice, 60 BALB/c mice were acclimatized and fed for 1 week, and then randomly divided into control, model, low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups. The control group was gavaged with an equal volume of saline, while the model group was gavaged with clindamycin and the same volume of saline. The test groups were gavaged with Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus Glory LG12 at doses of 1.5×106, 1.5×107, and 1.5×108 CFU/mouse, respectively. After 14 d of gavage, determination of body mass, intestinal flora structure, histopathologic changes, intestinal barrier function, intestinal permeability, and short-chain fatty acid concentration in mice. The results showed that compared with the control group, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus Glory LG12 significantly increased the number of beneficial bacteria such as Lacticaseibacillus and Bifidobacterium, significantly decreased the number of Clostridium perfringens, and significantly increased in the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the feces of the mice. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus Glory LG12 demonstrated a significant improvement in regulating the intestinal flora of mice.
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    2023,42(1):66-74, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1689.2023.01.005
    [Abstract] (735) [PDF 1.68 M] (1113)
    Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) are oligosaccharides mainly composed of α-1,6 glycosidic bonds linked glucoses, which have physiological characteristics of hypoglycemic index and promoting probiotics proliferation. The current commercial IMO production has low yield and high isomaltose content in the product, while the probiotic function of IMO is mainly attributed to the high polymerization fractions like disaccharides and above. In this study, α-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger and cyclodextrin glucosyltransferase (CGTase) from Bacillus stearothermophilus NO2 were combined for synthesis of IMO with improved yield and polymerization (named IMOH). In this study, the effects of reaction pH, temperature, time, substrate type and enzyme addition on the yield were investigated by single-factor experiments, and the effects of compound enzyme amount and reaction time were subsequently explored. The results showed that the yield of IMOH reached 64.27%, and the high polymerization content of trisaccharides and above was 71.57% under pH 5.5 at 50 ℃, using 300 g/L maltodextrin with DE values ranges from 15 to 20 as the substrate, and with α-glucosidase of 5 U/g substrate (calculated by substrate mass) and CGTase of 20 U/g substrate (calculated by substrate mass). The structural analysis of IMOH products showed that the ratio of α-1,6 bond ratio was 70.67%, and the average molecular weight of products was 706, which was higher than that of commercial IMO50. The in vitro fermentation experiments of intestinal microorganisms suggested that compared with commercial IMO50, the IMOH had a better proliferative effect on Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and could further inhibit the growth of opportunistic bacteria Escherichia coli in intestinal tract, showing a certain in vitro probiotic effect. This study proposed a new process of the IMO synthesis by the dual-enzyme compounds, providing a new idea for the industrial synthesis of IMO with high yield and high degree of polymerization.
    2023,42(1):18-39, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1689.2023.01.002
    [Abstract] (518) [PDF 4.57 M] (1310)
    As a linear polysaccharide, alginate has different physiological and biochemical characteristics according to its structure and composition. It holds great application value and potential in food, medicine and cosmetics. These characteristics of alginate are mainly controlled by the action of alginate-modifying enzymes such as alginate lyase, mannuronan C5-epimerase, alginate acetylase and alginate deacetylase. This review mainly introduced the synthesis of alginate-modifying enzymes and the mechanism of alginate modification, and summarized the source, classification, structure, mode of action and research progress of several alginate modifying enzymes. The emphasis was laid on the research progress of alginate lyase and mannuronan C5-epimerase. And we also prospected the future development of related research, providing reference for the further development and application of alginate and its related modifying enzymes.
    2023,42(1):1-17, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1689.2023.01.001
    [Abstract] (733) [PDF 2.80 M] (1314)
    Mycotoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by fungi during their growth. Mycotoxins not only seriously affect the yield of food crops, but also pose big threat to human health. There are various physical treatments for mycotoxins including cleaning, peeling, exposure, irradiation, ion pulse and so on, however, these physical methods are difficult to ensure complete removal of toxins. Also, the loss of nutrients in crops would be possibly caused during the physical treatment. Chemical methods can also eliminate mycotoxins to some extent, but the introduction of chemical reagents and the potential indirect contamination can limit the further application in practical field. With a continuous development of biotechnology, microbial enzymes have shown great advantages in the degradation of mycotoxins due to the mild reaction conditions, high degradation efficiency and low toxicity of degradation products. The discovery, identification and application of mycotoxin-degrading enzymes which have been reported so far were thoroughly reviewed in this manuscript. It is believed that with the deepening of research, the mycotoxin-degrading enzymes are expected to be further developed and employed in the feed and food industries.
    2022,41(10):67-76, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1689.2022.10.006
    [Abstract] (396) [PDF 3.55 M] (1022)
    Cold-adapted maltopentaose-forming amylases have relatively high catalytic activities at low temperatures and enable an efficient and specific conversion of starch to functional maltopentaose at room temperature, resulting in a broad applications in food, medical and pharmaceutical fields. In this study, SdG5A and SdG5A-CD from Saccharophagus degradans were expressed in Bacillus subtilis. Further, the cold adaptation of the recombinant enzymes was characterized and compared. The results showed that recombinant SdG5A retained 27.8% of its maximal activity at 0 ℃ and could produce 48.6% of maltopentaose at room temperature, indicating a strong cold adaptation of SdG5A. In contrast, SdG5A-CD, lacking the linker and starch-binding domain (SBD), did not show any cold adaptation. To investigate the mechanisms that might underlie the cold adaptation of SdG5A, the structure was predicted by RoseTTAFold and the structural flexibility was analyzed through molecular dynamics simulation. An extremely high flexibility in the C-terminal linker-SBD region was observed and its root-mean-square fluctuation at 0 ℃ was consistent with that at 45 ℃, indicating that the highly flexible linker-SBD region acted as a critical component for the cold adaptation of SdG5A.
    2022,41(10):58-66, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1689.2022.10.005
    [Abstract] (780) [PDF 2.74 M] (1099)
    γ-Gminobutyric acid is an important biologically active factor, which is synthesized though the decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). The author firstly cloned and expressed the glutamate decarboxylase-encoding gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in E. coli. The specific activity of the recombinant ScGAD purified by affinity chromatography reached a maximum value of 66.55 U/mg. Further enzymatic property analysis results indicated that ScGAD exhibited an optimum reaction temperature of 60 ℃, an optimum reaction pH of 4.0, excellent stability in the range of 30~50 ℃ and pH 4.0~9.0, and the value of 14.28 mmol/L for kinetic constant Km indicating ScGAD of a good affinity to L-glutamic acid. Finally, through the investigation of the optimal conditions for GABA preparation by whole-cell catalysis using ScGAD, the highest generation efficiency of GABA was achieved at the conditions of 60 ℃ and pH 4.0. On this basis, 100 mmol/L of the substrate (sodium L-glutamate) could be converted to 35.9 g/(g·h) of GABA through whole-cell catalysis. This study provides a basis for efficient production of GABA.
    2022,41(10):37-48, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1689.2022.10.003
    [Abstract] (181) [PDF 4.01 M] (1244)
    The development and application of functional starch are one of the hot research areas in food and medicine industries. Functional starch draws more and more attention from customs. It is an efficient method for the synthesis of functional starch by enzymatic catalysis. Due to its green environmental protection, safety and health characteristics, it has received extensive attention from scholars in many fields. In this paper, the structural regulation principle of artificial synthesis of amylose and highly branched starch using sucrose is summarized, and the research progress of amylosucrase and glycogen branching enzyme in the synthesis of functional starch is reviewed. The research trends and application prospects of starch in the field of functional food and medicine is illustrated, providing a reference for further development of functional starch.
    2022,41(7):111-119, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1689.2022.07.010
    [Abstract] (868) [PDF 2.03 M] (1106)
    Quercetin is a kind of important citrus flavonoid with antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, but with poor water solubility and lipid solubility. It has been proved that the metabolic stability and bioavailability of quercetin can be improved by methylation, and microbial transformation method is a good method to obtain methylated quercetin. In this study, 11 flavonoid O-methyltransferase(FOMT) from different sources were screened and classified according to methylation sites, and then the corresponding Escherichia coli engineering bacteria were constructed. Four mono O-methylated quercetin(tamarixetin, rhamnetin, isorhamnetin and 3-O-methylquercetin)were synthesized by fermentation with quercetin as substrate. The highest yields were 31.17, 11.17, 8.90, 52.95 mg/L, respectively. Then, the co-culture system of E.coli was constructed, and the whole cell catalyst containing MpOMT4 and OsNOMT was added step by step. By adjusting the proportion and biomass of the two bacteria in the system, it was finally determined that when the dry weight of cell was 24 g/L and the ratio of cell 1 and cell 2 was 1∶2, and the highest yields of 4′, 7-dimethoxyquercetin was 21.56 mg/L.
    2022,41(7):1-11, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1689.2022.07.001
    [Abstract] (841) [PDF 5.09 M] (2002)
    Plant-based foods generally refer to food made from plant materials. There is much room for the growth of plant-based foods in the era of great health. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation technology has great potentials in the development of diversified plant-based foods, which can achieve the diversification of flavor and health of plant-based foods. Thus, LAB-fermented plant-based foods industry is very promising in the future. This review summarizes the types of LAB-fermented plant-based foods, the relevant basic theories, key technologies as well as the industrialization status at home and abroad, and briefly discusses the main development trend of LAB-fermented plant-based food industry from the aspects of basic theory, key technology, and product a development. The aim of this review is to provide reference for the research and development of new LAB fermented plant-based food products.
    2022,41(6):41-50, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1689.2022.06.005
    [Abstract] (1229) [PDF 1.28 M] (1182)
    Triacylglycerols in human milk are important for infant lipid digestion and absorption. Previous research by our group has shown that human milk is naturally rich in medium- and long- chain triacylglycerols (MLCT). MLCTs are the most abundant triacylglycerols in human milk, accounting for about 30% of the total triacylglycerols, and the main structure of MLCT is a single medium chain (MLL) type triglyceride with one medium-chain fatty acid and two long-chain fatty acids. There are few medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in human milk. The content, composition and influencing factors of MLCT in human milk, and the differences between human milk and infant formulas are reviewed in this paper. The digestive and metabolic characteristics of MLCT are summarized, as well as the research progress of MLCT type human milk substitute fat. The research would provide theoretical basis for the development of infant formula.
    2022,41(6):1-12, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1689.2022.06.001
    [Abstract] (1390) [PDF 1.82 M] (2139)
    The modern edible oil manufacturing technology has been developed for more than half a century in China. With the advent of a new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial revolution, the research of new technologies of edible vegetable oil preparation and refining has attracted extensive attention. The important way to realize the industrial transformation, structural readjustment and development facilitation was through the flexible processing and accurate and appropriate processing technology of oils and greases based on the low-carbon and green manufacturing, high efficiency and low energy consumption, individualization of products, and new demands of nutrition and health. The authors briefly summarized the current research progress of novel technologies from three aspects, i.e. the oil-bearing materials pretreatment technology, the oil manufacturing technology, and the oil refining technology. The current application problems have been analyzed, and the future development trends have been prospected, providing the references of future oil technology development in China.
    2022,41(5):1-10, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1689.2022.05.001
    [Abstract] (1056) [PDF 1.51 M] (1523)
    Mycotoxins are important pollutants that have long been a serious problem of food security, especially for cereal crops. Therefore, the detection and degradation of mycotoxins has always been a focus of food safety research. According to the existing research, the main degradation methods are physicochemical and biological methods. In addition, a variety of synergistic degradation methods have emerged with a diversified trend. Therefore, the recent research efforts in different strategies used to control the contamination of various mycotoxins in food and other products were reviewed in this article, aiming to further promote the application of more convenient and efficient mycotoxin degradation methods to the relevant food fields, to reduce the impact of degradants on food quality, and to inspire new mycotoxin degradation methods. The corresponding toxin production mechanisms were analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of various methods to prevent and control mycotoxins at present were discussed. At the same time, the future development trend of mycotoxin degradation methods in food industry was prospected, and new research points were put forward.
    [Abstract] (628) [PDF 1.75 M] (1288)
    Based on the system of corn peptides-xylose-cysteine, the relationship between temperature, time and flavor profile and composition of Maillard reaction products was investigated. Results showed that with the increase of temperature(100~140 ℃) and the expansion of time (60~180 min), the meaty flavor, roasted flavor, mouthful taste and flavor persistence of Maillard reaction products increased continuously. But the overall acceptability increased at first and then decreased, the score of 120~150 min was higher at 120~130 ℃. The increase of temperature promoted the reaction toward degradation, and the types and contents of flavor amino acids and key volatile flavor compounds increased with the increase of temperature and time. Based on partial least square regression analysis, the relevant contribution components of different sensory characteristics were clarified. Furan, sulfur and ketone compounds were significantly positively correlated with meaty flavor, furan compounds have a significant effect on the roasted smell, peptides with relative molecular weight less than 1 000 had an important contribution to mouthful taste and flavor persistence, and bad smell mainly came from sulfur-containing compounds. This study can provide guidance for the directional preparation of Maillard reaction products of corn peptides with different flavor characteristics.
    [Abstract] (861) [PDF 1.69 M] (1084)
    Biogenic amines widely existed in some foods, especially in fermented foods, which have certain hidden danger of food safety. In order to obtain biogenic amines degrading strains used in fish sauce and other fermentation products, non-biogenic amines producing strains were primarily screened from the natural fermentation fish sauce by double-layer chromogenic medium method, which was re-screened by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to obtain a strain MZ5 with high efficiency of histamine degradation. The strain was identified as Pichia kudriavzevii, and the strain showed high histamine degradation activity in the range of 10~200 mg/L histamine concentration, 0~5% volume fraction of ethanol, pH 5~7 and 0~8 g/dL NaCl. The histamine degradation rate was 98.61% at the initial histamine mass concentration of 50 mg/kg and pH 7. Pichia kudriavzevii had good tolerance to ethanol, pH and salt concentration, and could be used as the fermentation preparation. This study could provide a research basis for the development of biological amine degradants in fermented food.
    2022,41(2):8-21, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1689.2022.02.002
    [Abstract] (1409) [PDF 1.80 M] (1423)
    Vine tea is classified as an Ampelopsis grossedentata of the Ampelopsis michx. in the the family of Vitacea. Vine tea is rich in flavonoids, among which dihydromyricetin (DMY) is the most important component. Scientific research has found that vine tea and its main bioactive components have various biological effects such as anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, lipid-lowering, anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria and anti-fatigue. Current studies have found that vine tea and its main bioactive components participate in different biological functions via targeting some important genes and regulating signal transduction pathways. However, the molecular mechanism of its effects is still unclear. In this paper, the biological activities, signal transduction pathways and key target genes of vine tea and its main bioactive components were systematically reviewed according to the updated domestic and international progress, expecting to provide theoretical reference for the in-depth study of vine tea and its bioactive components, and to be conducive to the further development and utilization of vine tea and its main bioactive components in the future.
    2022,41(1):36-43, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1689.2022.01.005
    [Abstract] (978) [PDF 2.04 M] (1086)
    Based on Au@PDA core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) and the fluorescence quenching toward quantum dots, a dual-signal readout mode lateral flow immunoassay strip (LFIA) was fabricated for qualitative or quantitative determination of tebuconazole in fruits and vegetables. The effects of the preparation of Au@PDA and Au@PDA-antibody complex, the load of sensing elements and buffers of the strip were investigated on the strip sensitivity. Under the optimal conditions, the qualitative detection limit of tebuconazole by the naked eyes was 1 μg/mL in colorimetric mode and 100 ng/mL in fluorescent detection mode. The developed strip was applied in the tebuconazole detection in cucumber samples. And the results showed the interference of sample matrix could be eliminated by an appropriate dilution of cucumber sample extract. The limit of detection for tebuconazole in cucumber was 0.8 mg/kg, meeting the limit requirement of national safety standard.
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    April 09, 2024, DOI: 10.12441/spyswjs.20220929004
    In order to investigate safe and efficient novel inhibitors of Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus), the compounds of the antifungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Bacillus subtilis PW2 were identified by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (HS-SPME-GC-MS) technique. The target compounds with strong antifungal activity were screened from the identified components by double petri dish method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the target compound against A. flavus was determined by double petri dish method and 96-well plate gradient dilution method. The inhibitory effect of the target compound on aflatoxin B1(AFB1) production by A. flavus was analyzed using an AFB1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) kit. The morphological changes of the tested A. flavus spores were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the ergosterol relative content in the tested A. flavus cell membrane was analyzed using spectrophotometry method to explore the antifungal mechanisms. As a result, a total of 41 components were identified from the VOCs produced by PW2, and among them, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol was selected as the target compound. The MIC values of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol against A. flavus determined by the double petri dish method and 96-well plate gradient dilution method were 0.169 μL/mL and 6.25 μL/mL, respectively. The AFB1 were effectively inhibited by 2-ethyl-1-hexanol at the volume fractions of 3.13, 6.25, and 12.50 μL/mL in PDB medium, and the inhibition effect was enhanced as the volume fraction of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol increased. Treatment with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol resulted in surface depression and the rupture of A. flavus spores, as well as alteration in the relative content of ergosterol in the cell membrane, leading to cell membrane damage. This study can provide a theoretical reference for the development of aflatoxin inhibitors with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol as a functional component.
    April 03, 2024, DOI: 10.12441/spyswjs.20230907005
    To investigate the flavor characteristics, volatile compound differences, and the material basis of aroma formation of special varieties in Wuyi rock tea produced from four tea plant varieties, quantitative description analysis (QDA), headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS), and odor activity value (OAV) combined with chemometrics were employed. The comparative analysis of flavor characteristics and differences of volatile compounds in Wuyi rock tea produced from four tea plant varieties was conducted. The results showed that the aroma attributes of Wuyi rock tea produced from four tea plant varieties were similar, with obvious floral and fruity aromas, and the Wuyi rock tea produced by the ""Rougui"" variety exhibited a unique and distinct cinnamon-like aroma. Chemometric analysis identified a total of 14 aroma components as the cause of the differences in the aroma of Wuyi rock tea produced from four tea plant varieties, using VIP>1 and computable OAV as the criteria. Linalool, β-ionone, and indole played a key role in the formation of floral aroma in Wuyi rock tea produced from four tea plant varieties. β-Cyclocitral, geraniol and phenylacetaldehyde significantly contributed to the floral aroma in Wuyi rock tea produced from ""Shuixian"", while linalool oxide II was responsible for ""Ruixiang"", and trans-2-nonenal for ""Huangguanyin"". Phenylethyl alcohol, hexyl hexanoate, and trans-cinnamaldehyde might be related to the formation of cinnamon-like aroma in Wuyi rock tea produced from ""Rougui"". The results provide theoretical references for the diversification of aroma types of Wuyi rock tea and the material basis of key aroma compounds in Wuyi rock tea produced from different varieties.
    April 03, 2024, DOI: 10.12441/spyswjs.20231015001
    o explore the optimal selenium-tolerant strains in Pleurotus ostreatus and determine the culture conditions and mycelial characteristics, four kinds of Pleurotus ostreatus were screened by solid culture and liquid fermentation. Pleurotus djamor was selected to culture selenium-enriched mycelium. The enzymatic activity indicators and the in vitro antioxidant activities of mycelial proteins and polysaccharides were determined. The results determined Pleurotus djamor as the best selenium-tolerant species. The optimal culture conditions were as follows: shaking speed of 150 r/min, pH 6.5, temperature of 25 ℃, and selenium concentration of 5.0 mg/L. Compared with the conventional mycelium, the selenium-enriched mycelium promoted the activities of PPO, POD and SOD, improved the stress resistance of mycelium. The selenium-enriched mycelium and its polysaccharides and proteins had strong scavenging ability to DPPH, superoxide anion radical and hydroxyl radicals. Finally, the effect of selenium-enriched mycelium of Pleurotus djamor on the survival rate of Caco-2 cells was investigated, and it was found that the selenium-enriched mycelium could inhibit the survival rate of Caco-2 cells. The selenium-enriched liquid fermented mycelium of Pleurotus djamor has been preliminarily determined with high physiological activity, which could be considered as a selenium supplement.
    April 03, 2024, DOI: 10.12441/spyswjs.20230412002
    The fermentation yield of spinosad, a biological pesticide, limits its industrialization development. To enhance spinosad production, Saccharopolyspora spinose T1 was mutagenized using atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) and diethyl sulfate (DES). The high-yield strain, S. spinosa F5, was obtained by streptomycin and rhamnose as screening factors combined with microplate culture. After fermentation, the yield of spinosad was 572.3 mg/L, an increase of 35.9% compared to that of the parent strain. Through single factor experiment and response surface test, the optimum addition amounts of sodium citrate and isoleucine were determined to be 0.46 g/L and 0.10 g/L, while the optimum addition volume fraction of soybean oil was 1.77%. Under this condition, the spinosad production reached 707.2 mg/L, and batch fermentation in a 5 L fermenter showed a yield close to 800 mg/L after 240 h fermentation. Further batch-fed fermentation resulted in a production of 1 175.5 mg/L after 264 h fermentation. The results showed that the compound mutation combining ARTP and DES breeding, along with the addition of exogenous inducers, could significantly increase the yield of spinosad.
    April 03, 2024, DOI: 10.12441/spyswjs.20230621001
    The antibacterial activity of 12 plant essential oils, including Syringa oblata Lindl, against prevalent foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli(E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella, was assessed by the hole punching method and serial dilution method to determine the inhibitory zone, minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Essential oils with strong antibacterial activity were selected for compounding, and synergistic indices (SI) were investigated using serial dilution method. One of the formulated essential oils was selected to preserve fresh chicken breast. The total number of colony, and the counts of E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella, as well as the flavor profiles were examined as indicators. The results indicated that the inhibitory zone diameters of 12 plant essential oils against three pathogens ranged from 0.3 to 7.3 cm, with MIC ranging from 0.98 to 125 g/L, and MBC from 3.91 to 500 g/L. Four pairs of essential oils were screened, resulting in four synergistic combinations that showed enhanced antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus and Salmonella, and their lowest SI values were 0.750, 0.375 and 0.375, respectively. Notably, the combination of oregano and pine needle essential oil significantly inhibited the proliferation of the total bacterial colonies, E. coli and Salmonella of chicken breast during cold storage, extending its shelf life by 5 days. The screened plant essential oils displayed good inhibitory activity against foodborne pathogens, and the combinations exhibited synergistic enhancement in effective MIC reduction. Specifically, the oregano and pine needle essential oil combination demonstrated efficacy in preserving chilled chicken breast, highlighting its potential for natural food preservative development.
    April 03, 2024, DOI: 10.12441/spyswjs.20230604001
    Rice starch has the advantages of small particles, high whiteness, and low allergenicity, but the difficulty in extraction, as well as its high cost, limits the wide application of rice starch in the food industry. The authors used three varieties of rice as raw materials and optimized the extraction conditions of alkali and protease to investigate the effects of different extraction processes on the structural and physicochemical properties of rice starches. The results showed that the protein residual rate in the alkali-extracted rice starches ranged within 0.65%~1.35% under the conditions of 0.20% alkali mass concentration, solid-liquid ratio of 1 g∶5 mL, and reaction duration of 4 h. The protein residual amount in the protease-extracted rice starches ranged from 0.58% to 0.82% with protease of 0.50% (mass fraction) at 45 ℃ under pH 4.0 for 4 h. The rice starches displayed irregularly polyhedral granules with a diameter ranging from 4 to 8 μm. Compared to the alkali-extracted rice starches, the protease-extracted rice starches had a more prominent polyhedral structure. The relative crystallinity of alkali-extracted rice starch was 22.93%~43.58%, slightly lower than that of protease-extracted rice starch (28.00%~43.81%). The solubility of rice starch (at an extraction temperature of 90 ℃) was 3%~15% higher than that of rice flour, and the swelling power was 8%~20% higher. Meanwhile, protease-extracted rice starch exhibited higher solubility and swelling power. Furthermore, compared to rice flour, rice starch showed stronger gel properties. The hardness of rice flour gels, alkali-extracted rice starch gels, and protease-extracted rice starch gels were in the range of -7.16~275.96 g, 55.09~368.43 g, and 62.37~373.45 g, respectively.
    March 26, 2024, DOI: 10.12441/spyswjs.20220809004
    To investigate the effects of different molding techniques on the main chemical components of white peony tea, Fu''an Dabai was used as the raw material and the withered leaves with different moisture content (40±1) %, (35±1) %, and (30±1) % were light rolled (QR) and tidied (LT) referring to the traditional white tea processing technology. The main chemical components of tea samples were detected and analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ-MS) and headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS). The results showed that the sensory quality score of white peony tea with different molding techniques decreased with the decrease of moisture content in the withered leaves. At the same moisture content, the QR molding was superior to the LT molding. The total contents of amino acids and catechins of white peony tea after molding(QR, LT) were significantly lower than those in traditional white peony tea (CK)(P<0.05), while the total sugar content and the relative contents of aldehydes were significantly higher than those in traditional white peony tea (P<0.05). Tea soup of white peony tea with high moisture content (40±1)% and gently kneaded withered leaves exhibited better freshness, thickness, and sweetness, along with a noticeable sweet floral aroma. Overall, the white peony tea molded with high-moisture(40±1)% withered leaves had better comprehensive quality. QR could facilitate the formation of sweet flower fragrance, while LT could be more conducive to the development of delicate fragrance flavor, providing a technical reference for improving the flavor and quality of white peony tea through molding techniques.
    November 22, 2023, DOI: 10.12441/spyswjs.20230412003
    Yeast β-glucan is a type of polysaccharide that is difficult to dissolve in commonly used solvents such as water, acids, and alkalis. Traditional preparation methods are complex, cumbersome, and often result in low product yield or impurities, causing difficulties in industrialization. In this study, an alkaline method combined with dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) was used to explore and optimize the production process of yeast β-glucan. The results showed that under the conditions of 0.7 g/dL NaOH at 80 ℃ for 2.6 hour alkaline treatment, the highest impurity removal rate was 71.84%. Separation and purification of β-glucan were accomplished under the conditions of the solid-to-liquid ratio of 30 mg∶1 mL and 80% volume fraction of DMSO at 80 ℃ for 30 minutes, resulting in a β-glucan product with a purity of 95.84%. The product was identified by thin-layer chromatography and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and the product was indicated as β-glucan composed of glucose monomers. Moreover, Anti-inflammatory experiments showed that this product had a certain biological activity. The study aimed to simplify production processes, scale up production, improve product quality, and provide a theoretical reference for industrialized production.
    November 21, 2023, DOI: 10.12441/spyswjs.20221107001
    This study aimed to detect the polymorphisms of κ-casein and αs1-casein gene in yak milk from seven different pastures in certain areas of Qinghai province, and to analyze the effect of gene polymorphisms on cheese coagulation characteristics. Yak milk somatic cells were extracted, and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis technique was used to extract DNA for PCR amplification and enzymatic digestion, followed by gene typing based on electrophoresis bands. Yak milk proteins were also extracted and high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) was used to analyze the chromatographic profiles of various samples compared to the standard samples, with a focus on peak time and peak shape for gene typing. The rheological characteristics during coagulation for different genotypes of yak milk were determined by rheometer. Cheese coagulation time was recorded, and cheese yield was calculated. The results showed that there were three genotypes for the κ-casein gene in yak milk, i.e., type AA, AB and BB. The analysis of the three genotypes and coagulation characteristics showed that the A allele was favorable in terms of coagulation time. Similarly, for the αs1-casein gene in yak milk, three genotypes (AA, AB, and BB) were also identified. The analysis of the coagulation time, cheese yield, maximum dynamic viscosity, and maximum shear rate revealed that the B allele was favorable. The above results suggest that both κ-casein and αs1-casein of yak milk in seven Qinghai farms have gene polymorphisms. The A allele in κ-casein and B allele in αs1-casein are the main effective genes affecting the coagulation characteristics of yak milk.
    November 21, 2023, DOI: 10.12441/spyswjs.20230320004
    Dextran sulfate sodium(DSS) was used to induce colitis in mice, and the effects of feruloylated oligosaccharides(FOs) on alleviating colitis and regulating intestinal flora imbalance were investigated by tissue sectioning combined with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed that compared to the DSS group, FOs ameliorated the histological damage, up-regulated the expression of intestinal tight junction proteins, and decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory factors, exerting protective effects on the intestinal barrier. In addition, FOs improved the colitis-induced imbalance in the intestinal microbiota of mice, decreased the abundance ratio of the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, increased the abundance of probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Muribaculaceae, and inhibited the colonization of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus. Compared to the normal group, FOs significantly increased the content of colonic short-chain fatty acids, positively affecting the intestinal micro-ecology. The results indicated that FOs could regulate DSS-induced intestinal flora disorders, optimize intestinal flora structure, improve intestinal flora diversity, and effectively ameliorate colonic inflammation.

Journal Information

    Competent Authority:Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China
    Sponsor:Jiangnan University
    Publishing Institute:Editorial Department of Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology
    Editor-in-chief:Chen Wei
    Co-Editor-in-Chief:Jiang Bo
    Address:No. 1800, Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province,China

Copy Right:Editorial Board of Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology

Address:No. 1800, Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province,China  PostCode:214122


Supported by:Beijing E-Tiller Technology Development Co., Ltd.


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